WHAT IS AN ADVERBIAL (A)?

 

Adverbials are optional elements of the clause structure that can be added or omitted without producing an ungrammatical clause. They provide circumstantial information.

 

Be very careful not to confuse the term ADVERBIAL with the term ADVERB/ADVERBIAL PHRASE

 

Types of adverbials

 

1. ADJUNCTS

 

They are part of the structure of the clause, i.e. they are constituents. They provide circumstantial information.

 

A. SPACE

- Mary found a good restaurant near the Faculty

 

B. TIME

- Set the video for tomorrow

 

C. MANNER

- He spoke to me in a very strange way

 

D. FREQUENCY

- Do you do your laundry weekly?

 

E. MODALITY

- She will certainly go to the airport then

 

F. CONTINGENCY

- Things being as they are, it is no use to ask them for support

 

3. - It is a constituent mainly optional

- He sent her some flowers through interflora

 

4. - It is very mobile

 

5. It can be realized by different linguistic units.

 

 

6. Tendency of different types of circumstances to be expressed by different adjuncts in a single clause, not as one single coordinated adjunct but as separated multiple adjuncts.

 

- He worked for a while (A1) as a pianist (A2) in New York (A3) before moving into opera conductor (A4)


2. DISJUNCTS

 

They provide an attitudinal comment by the speaker on the content of the clause.

They are not constituents of the clause because they affect the whole clause

 

They reflect the speaker's attitude towards what he is saying or to how he says it: the content of the clause must be interpreted from the perspective indicated by the disjunct, which is the speaker's perspective:

 

UNFORTUNATELY, we will talk again about adverbials next Thursday.

BRIEFLY SPEAKING, I hate adverbials too.

 

Disjuncts occupy an absolute initial position and they are separated by commas from the rest of the clause.

 

Frankly, I'll go if you like.

Literally, they said I just had to tell truth.

 

 

3. CONJUNCTS

 

- They are not elements of structures but connectors of structures. They reflect how the speaker intends the semantic connections to be made between one sentence and another.

 

- Their syntactic function is linking the sentence to which they are attached with the preceding text.

 

I've attended all the lectures. I have taken notes. I have studied all the lessons carefully. HOWEVER, I still have many doubts about the content of the subject.