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Cristalquímica básica. Abreviaturas Whitney & Evans

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Esta página ha sido transcrita literalmente del trabajo de Whitney & Evans (2010) indicado a continuación con el fin de ofrecer la información liberada por parte de la editorial Mineralogical Society of América.


American Mineralogist, Volume 95, pages 185–187, 2010

Abbreviations for names of rock-forming minerals

Donna L. Whitney1,* and Bernard W. Evans2

1Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, U.S.A.

2Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Box 351310, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98185, U.S.A.


DOI: 10.2138/am.2010.3371 185

Nearly 30 years have elapsed since Kretz (1983) provided the mineralogical community with a systematized list of abbre; viations for rock-forming minerals and mineral components. Its logic and simplicity have led to broad acceptance among authors and editors who were eager to adopt a widely recognized set of mineral symbols to save space in text, tables, and figures.

Few of the nearly 5000 known mineral species occur in nature with a frequency sufficient to earn repeated mention in the geoscience literature and thus qualify for the designation “rock-forming mineral,” but a reasonable selection of the most common and useful rock-forming minerals likely numbers in the several hundreds. The original list by Kretz (1983) contained abbreviations for 193 of these.

We propose an expansion to the list initiated by Kretz (1983) (see next page). Modest expansions and revisions were made by Spear (1993), Holland and Powell (1998), the Mineralogical Association of Canada, and Siivola and Schmid (2007). Our revised list of abbreviations has 371 entries. Significant numbers of the new entries are the result of three decades of research in high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrains, the explicit inclusion of Mg and Fe end-members of solid-solution series (as in the amphiboles), recent work on extraterrestrial samples, and the increased relevance to petrology of numerous accessory minerals.

The two systems of abbreviations currently most in use—Kretz (1983), including modifications; and Holland and Powell (1998)—differ in terms of style and concept. Kretz abbreviations are 2–3 letters and use uppercase first letters for minerals and lower case letters throughout for mineral components (e.g., the almandine component of garnet); the Holland and Powell system varies from 1–5 letters and uses lowercase throughout. The Kretz system provides abbreviations for selected intermediates in solid-solution mineral series. The Holland and Powell system is restricted to abbreviations for end-members for which there are available thermodynamic data that have been included in the Holland and Powell database. The two systems have the same abbreviations for some minerals (other than capitalization), but in many cases use different symbols for the same mineral, for example, “Crn” (Kretz) and “cor” (H&P).

The selection of minerals to include in a list of abbreviations is subjective, but we have tried to err on the side of being inclusive, listing some minerals for which the status is questionable according to the International Mineralogical Association. For example, we accommodate alternative choices such as titanite (Ttn) and sphene (Spn); hypersthene (Hyp), enstatite (En), and orthopyroxene (Opx); glaucophane (Gln), crossite (Crt), and riebeckite (Rbk); and albite (Ab) and anorthite (An) as well as plagioclase (Pl), recognizing that some petrologists have uses for these mineral names. In addition, although our focus is on rock-forming minerals, some hypothetical and/or synthetic phases are included in our list, as well as an abbreviation for “liquid” (Liq). We have also included some abbreviations for mineral groups, e.g., aluminosilicates (Als, the Al2SiO5 polymorphs), and other descriptive terms (e.g., opaque minerals). The choice of abbreviations attempts as much as possible to make the identity of the mineral instantly obvious and unambiguous.

Updated list of mineral abbreviations

In this contribution, abbreviations from Kretz (with some modifications) and new abbreviations are listed (Table 1, next page). The following format was used for assigning abbreviations:

(1) The first letter is capitalized; the other letter(s) are lower case, with the exception of Phase A, abbreviated as PhA.

(2) The first letter of the abbreviation is the first letter of the mineral name; subsequent letters are selected from the mineral name.

(3) Most abbreviations consist of 2 or 3 letters, but a 4-letter abbreviation is used when the addition of F for ferro- or M for magnesio- resulted in ambiguity in the 3-letter version (e.g., Mcar for magnesiocarpholite).

(4) Mineral abbreviations were selected so as not to correspond to abbreviations for elements. Note that rule 4 was violated by a few of the original Kretz abbreviations (Mo for molybdenite; Ne for nepheline), so some original Kretz abbreviations have been changed to follow this rule. Others have been modified to avoid ambiguity with minerals added to the list.


We thank Marc Hirschmann and Howard Day for input on the updated abbreviation system.

References cited

Kretz, R. (1983) Symbols of rock-forming minerals. American Mineralogist, 68, 277–279.

Holland, T.J.B. and Powell, R. (1998) An internally-consistent thermodynamic data set for phases of petrologic interest. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 16, 309–343.

Siivola, J. and Schmid, R. (2007) Recommendations by the IUGS Subcommission on the Systematics of Metamorphic Rocks: List of mineral abbreviations. Web version 01.02.07. ( IUGS Commission on the Systematics in Petrology.

Spear, F.S. (1993) Metamorphic Phase Equilibria and Pressure-Temperature-Time Paths. Monograph 1, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, Virginia.

Manuscript received august 11, 2009

Manuscript accepted august 13, 2009

Manuscript handled by Bryan Chakoumakos

Table 1. Updated list of abbreviations

A · B · C · D · E · F · G · H · I · J · K · L · M · N · O · P · Q · R · S · T · U · V · W · X · Y · Z

Symbol; Mineral Name; IMA status*



Acm; acmite; D

Act; actinolite; A

Adl; adularia; I

Aeg; aegirine; A

Ak; åkermanite; G

Ab; albite; G

Afs; alkali; feldspar GROUP

Aln; allanite; A

Alm; almandine; G

Als; aluminosilicate;

(Al2SiO5 polymorphs) GROUP

Alu; alunite; Rd

Amk; amakinite; Rd

Ame; amesite; G

Amp; amphibole GROUP

Anl; analcime (analcite); A

Ant; anatase; A

And; andalusite; G

Adr; andradite; G

Ang; anglesite; G

Anh; anhydrite; G

Ank; ankerite; G

Ann; annite; A

An; anorthite; G

Ano; anorthoclase; I

Ath; anthophyllite; Rd

Atg; antigorite; Rn

Ap; apatite GROUP

Apo; apophyllite GROUP

Arg; aragonite; G

Arf; arfvedsonite; A

Arm; armalcolite; Rd

Apy; arsenopyrite; A

Aug; augite; A

Awr; awaruite; G

Ax; axinite GROUP



Bab; babingtonite; G

Bdy; baddeleyite; G

Brt; barite (baryte); A

Brs; barroisite; Rd

Bei; beidellite; G

Brl; beryl; G

Bt; biotite GROUP

Bxb; bixbyite; G

Bhm; böhmite (boehmite); G

Bn; bornite; A

Brk; brookite; G

Brc; brucite; G

Bst; bustamite; G



Cal; calcite; G

Ccn; cancrinite; G

Cnl; cannilloite; H

Cb; carbonate mineral GROUP

Car; carpholite; G

Cst; cassiterite; G

Cel; celadonite; A

Clt; celestine; A

Cls; celsian; G

Cer; cerussite; G

Cbz; chabazite; A

Cct; chalcocite; G

Ccp; chalcopyrite; G

Chm; chamosite; G

Chs; chesterite; A

Chl; chlorite GROUP

Cld; chloritoid; G

Chn; chondrodite; G

Chr; chromite; G

Ccl; chrysocolla; A

Ctl; chrysotile; Rd

Cin; cinnabar; G

Cam; clinoamphibole GROUP

Clc; clinochlore; G

Cen; clinoenstatite; A

Cfs; clinoferrosilite; A

Chu; clinohumite; G

Cpt; clinoptilolite; A

Cpx; clinopyroxene GROUP

Czo; clinozoisite; G

Cln; clintonite; A

Coe; coesite; A

Coh; cohenite; G

Crd; cordierite; G

Crr; corrensite; G

Crn; corundum; G

Cv; covellite; G

Crs; cristobalite; G

Crt; crossite; D

Crl; cryolite; G

Cbn; cubanite; G

Cum; cummingtonite; Rd

Cpr; cuprite; G

Csp; cuspidine; G



Dph; daphnite; not listed

Dat; datolite; G

Dbr; daubreelite; G

Dee; deerite; A

Dia; diamond; G

Dsp; diaspore; G

Dck; dickite; G

Dg; digenite; A

Di; diopside; A

Dpt; dioptase; G

Dol; dolomite; G

Drv; dravite; G

Dum; dumortierite; G



Eas; eastonite; Rd

Ec; ecandrewsite; A

Eck; eckermannite; A

Ed; edenite; A

Elb; elbaite; G

Ell; ellenbergerite; A

Eng; enargite; G

En; enstatite (ortho-); A

Ep; epidote GROUP

Eri; erionite; A

Esk; eskolaite; G

Ess; esseneite; A

Eud; eudialite; A

Symbol; Mineral Name; IMA status*



Fas; fassaite; D

Fa; fayalite; G

Fsp; feldspar GROUP

Fac; ferro-actinolite; Rd

Fath; ferro-anthophyllite; Rd

Fbrs; ferrobarroisite; A

Fcar; ferrocarpholite; A

Fcel; ferroceladonite; A

Fec; ferro-eckermannite; Rd

Fed; ferro-edenite; Rd

Fgd; ferrogedrite; Rd

Fgl; ferroglaucophane; Rd

Fkrs; ferrokaersutite; A

Fny; ferronyboite; H

Fprg; ferropargasite; Rd

Frct; ferrorichterite; A

Fs; ferrosilite; Rn

Fts; ferrotschermakite; Rd

Fwn; ferrowinchite; Rd

Fi; fibrolite (fibrous

sillimanite); informal

Fl; fluorite; G

Fo; forsterite; G

Fos; foshagite; G

Frk; franklinite; G

Ful; fullerite; N



Ghn; gahnite; G

Glx; galaxite; G

Gn; galena; G

Grt; garnet GROUP

Ged; gedrite; Rd

Gh; gehlenite; G

Gk; geikielite; G

Gbs; gibbsite; A

Gis; gismondine; A

Glt; glauconite GROUP

Gln; glaucophane; Rd

Gme; gmelinite; A

Gth; goethite; A

Gdd; grandidierite; G

Gr; graphite; G

Gre; greenalite; G

Grs; grossular; A

Gru; grunerite; Rd

Gp; gypsum; G



Hl; halite; G

Hrm; harmotome; A

Hst; hastingsite; Rd

Hsm; hausmannite; G

Hyn; haüyne; G

Hzl; heazlewoodite; G

Hd; hedenbergite; A

Hem; hematite; A

Hc; hercynite; G

Hul; heulandite; A

Hbn; hibonite; G

Hbs; hibschite; Rn

Hgb; högbomite; D

Hol; hollandite; G

Hlm; holmquistite; Rd

Hbl; hornblende GROUP

Hw; howieite; A

Hu; humite; G

Hgr; hydrogrossular GROUP

Hyp; hypersthene; D



Ilt; illite GROUP

Ilm; ilmenite; G

Ilv; ilvaite; G



Jd; jadeite; A

Jrs; jarosite; Rd

Jim; jimthompsonite; A

Jhn; johannsenite; A



Krs; kaersutite; Rd

Kls; kalsilite; G

Kam; kamacite (α-FeNi); D

Kln; kaolinite; A

Ktp; katophorite; Rd

Kfs; K-feldspar; informal

Khl; K-hollandite; H

Kir; kirschsteinite; G

Krn; kornerupine; G

Kos; kosmochlor; A

Kut; kutnohorite (kutnahorite); G

Ky; kyanite; A



Lrn; larnite; G

Lmt; laumontite; A

Lws; lawsonite; G

Lzl; lazulite; A

Lzr; lazurite; G

Lpd; lepidolite GROUP

Lct; leucite; G

Lm; limonite; not listed

Liq; liquid

Lz; lizardite; G

Lo; löllingite (loellingite); G



Mgh; maghemite; G

Marf; magnesio-arfvedsonite; Rd

Mcar; magnesiocarpholite; A

Mfr; magnesioferrite; G

Mhs; magnesiohastingsite; Rd

Mhb; magnesiohornblende; Rd

Mkt; magnesiokatophorite; Rd

Mrbk; magnesioriebeckite; Rd

Msdg; magnesiosadanagite; Rd

Mst; magnesiostaurolite; A

Mtm; magnesiotaramite; Rn

Mws; magnesiowustite; not listed

Mgs; magnesite; A

Mag; magnetite; G

Maj; majorite; A

Mlc; malachite; G

Mng; manganosite; G

Mrc; marcasite; G

Mrg; margarite; A

Mar; marialite; G

Mei; meionite; G

Mll; melilite GROUP

Mw; merwinite; G

Mes; mesolite; A

Mc; microcline; G

Mlr; millerite; G

Mns; minnesotaite; G

Mog; moganite; A

Mol; molybdenite; G

Mnz; monazite; A

Mtc; monticellite; G

Mnt; montmorillonite; G

Mor; mordenite; A

Mul; mullite; G

Ms; muscovite; A

Symbol; Mineral Name; IMA status*



Ntr; natrolite; A

Nph; nepheline; G

Nrb; norbergite; G

Nsn; nosean; G

Nyb; nyböite; Rd



Ol; olivine GROUP

Omp; omphacite; A

Opl; opal; G

Opq; opaque mineral; informal

Orp; orpiment; G

Oam; orthoamphibole GROUP

Or; orthoclase; A

Oen; orthoenstatite; D

Opx; orthopyroxene GROUP

Osm; osumilite; G



Plg; palygorskite; G

Pg; paragonite; A

Prg; pargasite; Rd

Pct; pectolite; G

Pn; pentlandite; G

Per; periclase; G

Prv; perovskite; G

Ptl; petalite; G

PhA; phase A; not listed

Ph; phengite; G

Php; phillipsite; A

Phl; phlogopite; A

Pmt; piemontite; A

Pgt; pigeonite; A

Pl; plagioclase GROUP

Prh; prehnite; G

Prm; prismatine; Rd

Psb; pseudobrookite; Rd

Pmp; pumpellyite-(Al); A

Py; pyrite; G

Pcl; pyrochlore; A

Prp; pyrope; G

Pph; pyrophanite; G

Prl; pyrophyllite; G

Pxf; pyroxferroite; A

Pxm; pyroxmangite; G

Po; pyrrhotite; G



Qnd; qandilite; A

Qz; quartz; A



Rnk; rankinite; G

Rlg; realgar; G

Rds; rhodochrosite; A

Rdn; rhodonite; A

Rct; richterite; A

Rbk; riebeckite; Rd

Rwd; ringwoodite; A

Rdr; roedderite; A

Rsm; rossmanite; A

Rt; rutile; G



Sdg; sadanagaite; Rd

Sa; sanidine; G

Sap; saponite; G

Spr; sapphirine; G

Scp; scapolite GROUP

Sch; scheelite; G

Srl; schorl; G

Scb; schreibersite; G

Sep; sepiolite; G

Ser; sericite; D

Srp; serpentine GROUP

Sd; siderite; G

Sil; sillimanite; G

Sme; smectite GROUP

Sdl; sodalite; G

Sps; spessartine; A

Sp; sphalerite; A

Spn; sphene (titanite); D

Spl; spinel; G

Spd; spodumene; A

Spu; spurrite; G

St; staurolite; G

Stv; stevensite; Q

Stb; stilbite; A

Stp; stilpnomelane; A

Sti; stishovite; A

Str; strontianite; G

Sud; sudoite; Rd

Syl; sylvite; G



Tae; taenite (γ-Fe, Ni); G

Tlc; talc; G

Trm; taramite; Rd

Tnt; tennantite; G

Tnr; tenorite; A

Tep; tephroite; G

Ttr; tetrahedrite; A

Thm; thomsonite; A

Thr; thorite; G

Tly; tilleyite; G

Ttn; titanite (sphene); A

Tpz; topaz; G

Tur; tourmaline GROUP

Tr; tremolite; Rd

Trd; tridymite; G

Tro; troilite; G

Ts; tschermakite; Rd



Usp; ulvöspinel; G

Urn; uraninite; G

Uv; uvarovite; A



Vtr; vaterite; A

Vrm; vermiculite; G

Ves; vesuvianite; A



Wds; wadsleyite; A

Wag; wagnerite; Rd

Wrk; wairakite; A

Wav; wavellite; A

Wht; whitlockite; G

Wlm; willmenite; G

Wnc; winchite; Rd

Wth; witherite; G

Wo; wollastonite; A

Wur; wurtzite; G

Wus; wüstite; G



Xtm; xenotime; A

Xon; xonotlite; G



Yug; yugawaralite; A



Zeo; zeolite GROUP

Znw; zinnwaldite GROUP

Zrn; zircon; G

Zo; zoisite; G

* International Mineralogical Association (IMA) abbreviations: A = Approved; D = Discredited; G = Grandfathered (generally regarded as valid mineral name); GROUP = Name designates a group of mineral species; H = hypothetical (e.g., synthetic); I = intermediate in a solid-solution series; Q = questionable; Rd = Redefinition approved by IMA Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC); Rn = Renamed with approval of the CNMNC.

Cristalquímica básica. Abreviaturas Whitney & Evans

[Introducción] [Fórmulas minerales] [Efecto de P y T] [Granate] [Epidota] [Clorita y serpentina] [Pixoxenos] [Anfíboles] [Micas y otros filosilicatos] [Feldespatos] [Espinelas y óxidos Fe-Ti] [Otros] [Abreviaturas Kretz] [Abreviaturas Whitney & Evans] [Abreviaturas IMA 2021]

Última modificación: martes, 26 de diciembre de 2023 15:57 +0100